The country codes Top Level Domains (ccTLDs) are two-letter Internet top-level domains (TLDs) specifically designated for a particular country, sovereign state or autonomous territory for use to service their community (more details on ICANN wiki).
The table below shows how ccTLDs are managed in several European countries, including the name and type of the institution that is hosting the ccTLD and if the ICANN multi-stakeholder model is replicated in national TLD management. The table also indicates if the ccTLD is restricted to country nationals and its price.
|Country||National ccTLD||Hosting institution||Type of institution|
Multi-stakeholder approach in ccTLD administration
|Price||Restricted to country nationals?|
|Austria||.at||Nic.at||Company, owned by the "Internet Privatstiftung Austria" (IPA) - A foundation under supervision of the "Internet Service Providers Austria" foundation (ISPA)||No|
For end users: €30 + VAT (20%)
Price can be cheaper, if the Domain is registered via an ISP
Private body (independent limited liability company)
Имена.бг is a joint-stock company. Register.bg acquires shares.
30 EUR + VAT (20%) – for a period of 1 year
Price- not identified for .бг
|Czech Republic||.cz||CZ.NIC||An interest association of legal entities||Yes|
125 CZK + VAT (21%)- year
AFNIC (Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération)
|State-appointed registry / non-profit association / multi-registry operator of the top-level domains||Afnic carries out its assignments in the public interest by involving all the relevant stakeholders in its decisions (scientists, the public authorities, and representatives of private sector involved in the Internet in France).||Request is made with a registry office not the AFNIC directly. AFNIC charges the registry offices for a domain name between EUR 4.80 and 5.80.||No|
|Germany||.de||Deutsches Network Information Center (DENIC)||Private (Genossenschaft)||DENIC consists of approximately 300 members, including almost every considerable national and international ISP|
A domain registered at DENICdirect costs 116 € / year.However, DENIC recommends to register domains at 3rd party providers (members of DENIC); price is approximately 6-10 € /year.
|Italy||.it||Registro.it (.it Registry) - IIT Istituto di Informatica e Telematica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and nic.it/||Public body, within the National Research Council||No||Price depends on the provider||No, it is open also to people or organizations based in Europe.|
|Malta||.mt||Network Information Centre (NIC)||Public body. Committee formed by the University of Malta. Formally the Malta Internet Foundation.||No||EUR 30 (incl. 18% VAT).||No|
|Netherlands||.nl||Dutch registry SIDN||Private||Yes||Varies. Depends on the domain registrar - approximately 5-10 Euro annually.||No|
|Romania||.ro||Institute of Research in Informatics (ICI)||Public body (under the supervision of Ministry of Communications and Information Technology).||No||61 USD + Vat (24%) - unlimited period||No|
|Spain||.es||dominios.es||Public body (under the supervision of Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism)||Yes||Registration price using governmental registrar: 33,38 €||No|
The Switch Foundation assigns and manages the domain names under the .ch domain on behalf of OFCOM (from 2003 to end of 2014).
The new Ordinance on Internet Domains (passed by the Federal Council on 5 November 2014) imposing a separation between the functions of registry and registrar (both performed by SWITCH so far) entered into force in January 2015. On 20 March 2015, OFCOM and SWICH renewed their contract for the management of ‘.ch’ until mid-2017, allowing for a gradual transfer of ‘.ch’ holders to other marketers of domain names.
|Switch is a foundation created by public sector entities. OFCOM is a government body.||No, but OFCOM organizes open multi-stakeholder discussions and is therefore well-informed of the various viewpoints.||Depends on the registrar.||No.|
|United Kingdom||.uk||Nominet||(Private) Limited company, not-for-profit||No|
Varies. Depends on the domain registrar
Last updated on 28 February 2018.
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